Tap to unmute

We FINALLY Proved Why Ice Is Slippery

แชร์
ฝัง
  • เผยแพร่เมื่อ 21 ก.ค. 2024
  • Why is Ice Slippery? New research suggests we finally have an answer.
    Source article:
    www.nature.com/articles/s4158...
    0:00 Why is Ice Slippery?
    1:14 The History of Understanding Ice
    2:15 The Pressure Hypothesis
    5:41 The Quasi-Liquid Layer Theory
    6:50 The Results
    10:17 Cold Ice Isn't Slippery
    Merch!
    I think Scientists are Rockstars so I made t-shirts to celebrate it
    Einstein Rockstar Tee: www.drbenmiles.com/merch/p/ro...
    Curie Rockstar Tee: www.drbenmiles.com/merch/p/ro...
    Schrodinger Rockstar Tee: www.drbenmiles.com/merch/p/ro...
    If you enjoy the channel and want even more physics, tech, and business content, I've just launched new Instagram and Threads pages. Follow on the links below
    Insta: / drbenmiles
    Threads: threads.net/drbenmiles
    Newsletter drbenmiles.substack.com/
    A few people have asked so I've added the info below. Some of these are affiliate links. If you make a purchase it doesn't cost you anything extra, but a percentage of the sale will help support this channel and my work to bringing entrepreneurship into science.
    My camera : amzn.to/3ed5Xac
    My lens: amzn.to/3xIAZyA
    My lav: amzn.to/2SeE20Y and amzn.to/3nK33wA
    My mic: amzn.to/3gUYYEv
  • วิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยี

ความคิดเห็น • 1.7K

  • @michaeldaniels3865
    @michaeldaniels3865 หลายเดือนก่อน +4990

    It makes me wonder if these observations could inspire a "slippery" metal alloy that never needs lubrication

    • @orchdork775
      @orchdork775 หลายเดือนก่อน +175

      Interesting!

    • @fireworkstarter
      @fireworkstarter หลายเดือนก่อน +511

      youd need a metal alloy that wont ever rust since that would not make it pack propperly into a crystal again and it needs to be able to turn liquid again under pressure

    • @dtibor5903
      @dtibor5903 หลายเดือนก่อน +549

      Yes, that metal is bronze... Although it needs some lubrication for best performance. You find bronze bushings in small motors and fans.

    • @pon1
      @pon1 หลายเดือนก่อน +21

      PLEASE someone invent that!

    • @SeekingTheLoveThatGodMeans7648
      @SeekingTheLoveThatGodMeans7648 หลายเดือนก่อน +95

      Any alloy would be slippery at its melting point. A bearing filled with a liquid like mercury (or safer, galinstan) -- as long as it could be made so that it would not leak its liquid and its temperature never reached the freezing point of the liquid -- might be a possibility.

  • @antivanti
    @antivanti หลายเดือนก่อน +1288

    As someone who lives "quite far north" I can attest to the fact that ice gets less slippery when it's REALLY cold. Bur also if the soles in your shoes are cheap and contain more plastic than rubber they get hard as bakelite and insanely slippery.
    Also if it's really cold and there's a slight layer of powder snow on perfectly blank ice you're screwed. There's no more slippery surface in the world. Literally no friction. It's like being the puck on an air hockey table 😅

    • @blucat4
      @blucat4 หลายเดือนก่อน +45

      I believe you. But coming close is a hard rock road (graded flat and smooth) with clay over the top (also graded smooth) and rain. That's extremely slippery as well.

    • @Myron90
      @Myron90 หลายเดือนก่อน +6

      I live quite far south. It's always so hot.

    • @nomars4827
      @nomars4827 หลายเดือนก่อน +65

      ​@@Myron90you live not as much far South. Really far South is also cold

    • @_apsis
      @_apsis หลายเดือนก่อน +64

      @@Myron90 you live quite far middle, then

    • @Padraic54
      @Padraic54 29 วันที่ผ่านมา +7

      I can't hear the word bakelite without having flashbacks to End of Evangelion.

  • @flaym.
    @flaym. หลายเดือนก่อน +2276

    Therapist: "double-bonded hydrogen isn't real, it can't hurt you"
    Double-bonded hydrogen: 6:25 (right side)

    • @bananasnapples9465
      @bananasnapples9465 หลายเดือนก่อน

      what is that abomination

    • @HighFlyer96
      @HighFlyer96 หลายเดือนก่อน +355

      Don't kink-shame, just a different kind of -bondage- bonding

    • @helohel5915
      @helohel5915 หลายเดือนก่อน +55

      Hydrogen bonding:

    • @terraminator4379
      @terraminator4379 หลายเดือนก่อน +86

      erm what the sigma?

    • @oa_math
      @oa_math หลายเดือนก่อน +24

      lmaoooooo I see it now lmaoo

  • @seanb3516
    @seanb3516 หลายเดือนก่อน +487

    I had a Chemistry Teacher demonstrate a Solid - Solid Chemical Reaction.
    It was quite odd looking. Two different white powders were placed in a glass tube.
    The tube is shaken only one toss at a time. In the tube blue crystals quickly formed.
    The crystals grew each toss of the tube but not otherwise. There had to be mechanical motion and contact.

    • @DoNotPushHere
      @DoNotPushHere หลายเดือนก่อน +43

      Won't you remember which solids were those? Looks like an amazing experiment

    • @kleinegeist
      @kleinegeist หลายเดือนก่อน +28

      But seriously, if you recall the chemicals involved I'd love to know, might duplicate the demonstration.

    • @vari1535
      @vari1535 หลายเดือนก่อน +21

      i would like to add to/reinforce the inquiries about which solids they were!

    • @trs4184
      @trs4184 29 วันที่ผ่านมา +38

      With the utmost reverence, I, being the fourth person to inquire, humbly beseech you to graciously reveal the esteemed identities of the two venerable white powders that were utilized in this noble undertaking, so that I might fully grasp the intricate details of their application and import.

    • @andrewmcguinness1845
      @andrewmcguinness1845 29 วันที่ผ่านมา +30

      I, too, wish to humbly add my name to the list of others requesting this knowledge of you. I seek their import and subsequent application for the entertainment of my 4 year old niece. Even if she isn't entertained, I will be.
      EDIT: My research indicates it might be some form of Copper Sulfate.

  • @Yezpahr
    @Yezpahr หลายเดือนก่อน +387

    Lol, the bloopers at the end were priceless. Here you are trying to prove something mundane that we all know happens and the ice gods just aren't letting you have it.

    • @dmitryshusterman9494
      @dmitryshusterman9494 หลายเดือนก่อน +8

      Not proving, explaining

    • @michaellavery4899
      @michaellavery4899 26 วันที่ผ่านมา

      Sounds like most of my experience chemistry labs. I'm sure bronze age people were better practical chemists than me.

  • @S1nwar
    @S1nwar หลายเดือนก่อน +544

    do you know why, when you wet your fingers with a tiiiny amount of water you get insanely good grip (on a smooth metal surface for example)? completely dry fingers are slippery and completely wet ones too but theres that perfect amount of water that gives you an insane amount of friction

    • @cyfralcoot65
      @cyfralcoot65 หลายเดือนก่อน +243

      The answer is probably capillary forces pressing your hand and a surface together.
      Just lay 2 flat glass sheets on top of each other and add 1 drop of water between them - You'll be surprised how much force is required to pull them apart

    • @MrTheoJ
      @MrTheoJ หลายเดือนก่อน +59

      this is also the case with some types of garbage bags. With dry fingers its hard to seperate / open them but with damp, not wet, it's easy

    • @itssoaztek4592
      @itssoaztek4592 หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@cyfralcoot65 Yes, capillary forces contribute to improved "grip". A much bigger contribution though comes probably from the increase in contact area. Imagine two sheets of any solid material put on top of each other. The force required to separate them decreases with increasing surface roughness, i.e. decreasing contact area. In other words, the sum of attractive interaction forces between these two surfaces in contact depends strongly on the number of atoms (per unit area) at very close distance across the "gap". Now, instead of polishing two rough surfaces you get a similar effect here by adding water to "smooth out" the roughness, i.e. increase the "contact area". An indication that the contribution of capillary forces is not as big may be derived from the fact that compared to wet fingers you get a similar effect of improved grip with "greasy" fingers. Grease or fat are semi-solid materials, so capillary forces are not existent or negligible in that case. Of course, this is still not the whole picture but hopefully a useful illustration.

    • @jaspermooren5883
      @jaspermooren5883 หลายเดือนก่อน +65

      Just a hypothesis, but it might have to do something with the oiliness of your fingers. By applying water, the oils on your fingers are rendered less effective. I wouldn't be surprised if there is an optimal point between reducing the effectiveness of the oil and the effect of the liquid water itself. But like I said, that's just a hypothesis.

    • @bl4cksp1d3r
      @bl4cksp1d3r หลายเดือนก่อน +14

      That's because of the grease on your skin. Clean the properly and this happens way less

  • @HallowedError
    @HallowedError หลายเดือนก่อน +116

    This was fantastic and I remember all the old videos that basically said 'this is our best guess but it doesn't actually make sense' so this was really satisfying

  • @fulldeepshadowmmon
    @fulldeepshadowmmon หลายเดือนก่อน +43

    This is a perfect illustration of the problem with active measurement. The energy introduced to the system to measure it changes it. Therefore what you are measuring is the system plus the measuring method. So you can never measure just the system.

    • @user-vp1sc7tt4m
      @user-vp1sc7tt4m หลายเดือนก่อน +4

      Are you making a reference to the QED measurement problem in your statement?

    • @michaelhart7569
      @michaelhart7569 29 วันที่ผ่านมา +8

      Yes. That sort of question was always in my mind when reading/reviewing AFM-type experiments (I was working with surface plasmon resonance at the time).
      Also, more than one supervisor reminded that "remember, this is their best data they are publishing". Asking how often another pattern was observed tended to make people get a bit scientifically defensive.

  • @Min0rus
    @Min0rus หลายเดือนก่อน +1284

    This is just a meme compilation of people slipping on ice. You cant change my mind

    • @manfromlamancha
      @manfromlamancha หลายเดือนก่อน +7

      They know what they were doing.

    • @thunderhorse64
      @thunderhorse64 หลายเดือนก่อน +15

      With a bit of science and history sprinkled in there for a bit of flavor

    • @cosmicraysshotsintothelight
      @cosmicraysshotsintothelight หลายเดือนก่อน +4

      So are the comments... and they are crystalizing and accumulating... Snow flakes and Ice cubes and glaciers, oh my! No wonder they carved out lakes. The slippery side is 'up top'!

    • @zachhoy
      @zachhoy หลายเดือนก่อน +3

      his editor is low-key awesome

    • @Patrik6920
      @Patrik6920 หลายเดือนก่อน

      well thas some cold hard slippery news..

  • @pauljackson3491
    @pauljackson3491 หลายเดือนก่อน +146

    So the AFM is actually like a really small record player stylus.
    And with the laser bouncing off there are 2 levers involved:
    The stylus is one and the laser beam is the other.

    • @oscargr_
      @oscargr_ หลายเดือนก่อน +6

      With a rather odd definition of lever, sure.

    • @cosmicraysshotsintothelight
      @cosmicraysshotsintothelight หลายเดือนก่อน +3

      Paint It Black (ha ha) and the beam will apply 'pressure'. Hey... I know! Apply a Vanta black surface treatment. Oh crap, then you will not be able to see the laser bounce! I suddenly hear David Bowie music in my head... I am getting old.

    • @entcraft44
      @entcraft44 หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@cosmicraysshotsintothelight The beam will exert more pressure (twice as much to be exact) if you make it nice and shiny rather than black.

    • @admthrawnuru
      @admthrawnuru หลายเดือนก่อน +10

      The explanation in the video is oversimplified, but sure. The actual paper used non-contact mode AFM, meaning the tip oscillated just above the surface and the atomic force was derived by modulation of the amplitude or frequency of the oscillation

    • @SuperBoppy
      @SuperBoppy หลายเดือนก่อน

      The world's smallest phonograph player. LOL

  • @coldicecubes0
    @coldicecubes0 28 วันที่ผ่านมา +122

    I'm not weird >: (

    • @Wolfentodd
      @Wolfentodd 23 วันที่ผ่านมา +10

      Who the hell let you out of the sub-zero control freezer?

    • @softwater34
      @softwater34 20 วันที่ผ่านมา +2

      It’s okay. I don’t think you are

    • @coldicecubes0
      @coldicecubes0 19 วันที่ผ่านมา +4

      @@Wolfentodd they said i was too "cool" for that place

    • @Wolfentodd
      @Wolfentodd 19 วันที่ผ่านมา +4

      @@coldicecubes0 did they write an-tartic-le about it?

    • @AdalbertAlexandru
      @AdalbertAlexandru 5 วันที่ผ่านมา

      Careful your melting away 🥴

  • @solii01
    @solii01 หลายเดือนก่อน +16

    I started watching this video with the thought "I will probably not understand this". But you explained everything _very_ well. Good job and thank you!

  • @bujin5455
    @bujin5455 หลายเดือนก่อน +207

    4:15. I don't know that I buy the idea that there are three square inches of ice skate on the ice when a person is in motion. (The area required for a 150lb person to be exerting 50psi.) I suspect the real expressed area is quite a bit less than that.

    • @Bob94390
      @Bob94390 หลายเดือนก่อน +78

      How wide is the blade of a skate used by figure skaters? 0.4 centimeters? It is curved, so less than the full length is in contact with the ice; say 5 or 10 centimeters. Based on these assumptions, the contact area could be around 2 to 4 square centimeters. That is a factor 5 to 10 less than 3 square inches. So I agree with you.

    • @elirane85
      @elirane85 หลายเดือนก่อน +60

      @@Bob94390 To bottom of an ice skating blade is not flat but concaved so the width that touches the ice is much much less then the blade's width, it's actually 2 very thin blades that you skate on called the "inner edge" and "outer edge".

    • @ldcent8482
      @ldcent8482 หลายเดือนก่อน

      I agree, but I gave up after googling for lengths and widths of hockey blades and receiving exclusively articles about blade radius, which is apparently a keyword.
      I say, take the blade length and multiply by the width of a cunt hair times two.

    • @cosmicraysshotsintothelight
      @cosmicraysshotsintothelight หลายเดือนก่อน +18

      @@elirane85 It is all touching. Those "edges" are what are there and are "sharp" (concave face) to allow the skater to use his down force and that cutting edge and the skate blade tilt angle and skate blade lengthwise arc to effect a turn or vector alteration. The racing skates have a flat squared face on the edge, which is one reason why they step through turns on their tracks and use big long body weight shifts and not a convex curved edge kick to accelerate against. Even in the case of the concave faced blades the entire blade face 'touches' when 'gliding'. Like the difference between 'riding ' a skate board and the leg kicks to get it going and keep it going.

    • @velisvideos6208
      @velisvideos6208 หลายเดือนก่อน +6

      The third skate profile is found on ice yacht blades. These are sharpened to knife edges with about 90 degrees angle. The blade must be slightly curved for best performance with a short flat centre section. It's noteworthy that in practice speed skates have a similar 90 degrees effective angle on the edge that touches ice. Based on personal experience, smooth ice is slipper than rough ice. For safe walking on smooth ice the worst conditions occur when there is a thin layer of dry snow covering the ice. It's like walking on roller bearings.

  • @uumlau
    @uumlau หลายเดือนก่อน +118

    Awesome video! The interesting thing is that the "it melts slightly under pressure" explanation was parroted as fact for so long. There's an old Feynman video (1986-ish) where he gives that explanation.

    • @Yezpahr
      @Yezpahr หลายเดือนก่อน +3

      What I find weird is how so many people refuse to read my comment and refuse to understand anything I wrote.
      Just don't read this if you're feebleminded, people.
      What I find weird is how it managed to get parroted that much, because the notion that it melts a fine layer on top under pressure is still just a circular argument. You end up with a layer of water but why is **that** slippery? They ---> (the people in the past, aka ---> BEFORE

    • @ClementinesmWTF
      @ClementinesmWTF หลายเดือนก่อน +38

      @@Yezpahrwater…is slippery tho. It’s not a circular argument to say water is slippery. Everyone knows that a thin sheet of water acts as a lubricant and is slippery, hence “wet floor” signs and hydroplaning. You really weren’t as clever as you thought you were and this seems more like a r/im14andthisisdeep type brag.

    • @1dfr33
      @1dfr33 หลายเดือนก่อน +6

      ​@@YezpahrI've never in my life heard a 4th grader say "circular argument" or even have the wherewithall to properly follow an argument in a way that could allow them to state that. With that being said, I'm calling cap on you homie.

    • @Yezpahr
      @Yezpahr หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      @@1dfr33 In my country we actually got education, instead of 4 years of kindergarten.

    • @Yezpahr
      @Yezpahr หลายเดือนก่อน +3

      @@ClementinesmWTF Your reddit lingo is meaningless here. They didn't explain water was slippery, they just said it was.
      I do occasionally grab a drop from the faucet to gain **friction** on the garbagebags when getting it off the roll and to open a new bag... so it is slippery you say, but there are more forces at work as to **why the ice** is slippery in the first place which nobody explained until these papers came out.

  • @rebeccawinter472
    @rebeccawinter472 หลายเดือนก่อน +15

    The background baseline of "under pressure" and "ice ice baby" is just sublime when talking about vacuum @2:20.

    • @shyguy1597
      @shyguy1597 25 วันที่ผ่านมา

      actual timestamp: 2:13 (dont put your timestamp at the end of the section you want to talk about)

    • @chefstratosphere
      @chefstratosphere 18 วันที่ผ่านมา

      ​@@shyguy1597 39 buried, 0 found

    • @chefstratosphere
      @chefstratosphere 18 วันที่ผ่านมา

      i hate the fact it cut off when it was about to be crushed

  • @WoodlandDrake
    @WoodlandDrake 18 วันที่ผ่านมา +4

    "It's complicated" then proceeds to describe a rolling conveyer line

  • @ralphc.644
    @ralphc.644 หลายเดือนก่อน +163

    The "I" in ice Ih and Ic is the Roman numeral one. It should be pronounced "ice one h" and "ice one c". Fantastic video! Great work!

    • @scott98390
      @scott98390 หลายเดือนก่อน +20

      Yet another example of font failure

    • @confuseatronica
      @confuseatronica หลายเดือนก่อน +8

      Ith
      Icth
      Ith bronounthd li yuh tug ith frothed sthoo a flagpole

    • @killerbee.13
      @killerbee.13 หลายเดือนก่อน +13

      @@scott98390 there is no font that will show you the difference between a roman numeral one and an I

    • @apotatoman4862
      @apotatoman4862 หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@killerbee.13 U+2160
      edit: Ⅰ

    • @chromatica__
      @chromatica__ หลายเดือนก่อน +5

      @@killerbee.13 technically there is a separate Unicode character for the roman numeral "Ⅰ" that isn't the same as the latin alphabet capital I, but because people pretty much always just use the latin alphabet I for both and most fonts don't have the roman numeral version so it doesn't really matter

  • @MeriaDuck
    @MeriaDuck หลายเดือนก่อน +70

    I knew about electron tunneling microscopes, this looks a slight bit simpler than that. The fact that we can scan atomic-scale resolution is mindblowingly fantastic.

    • @thea78999
      @thea78999 หลายเดือนก่อน +8

      If you are in an AFM Lab and the people there are in a mood to do it, ask them to scan graphene with one. It can manage to produce incredible pictures where you can clearly see the graphene structure (iirc we managed do get a frame of 3 by 3 nm). Also AFMs can be used to probe for magnetic fields (for example it's possible to visualize the data written on the disks of old harddrives) or you can graft polimerized surfaces and do very fine engravings.

    • @admthrawnuru
      @admthrawnuru หลายเดือนก่อน +4

      atomic-scale AFM is fairly difficult, by which I mean you need the proper setup. Like all atomic-resolution methods right now, it mostly only works at cryogenic temperatures in vacuum... but more generally easy-to-use AFMs can still get nanometer order resolutions and can be modified to measure all kinds of other phenomena (conductivity, work function, magnetic moment, piezoelectric effect, etc.). Liquid environment AFMs also operate at slightly lower resolutions and can pick up electrochemical signals and the like. My second most cited publication (sadly not first author) was used electrochemical microscopy to detect analyte activation on sensing nanoparticles.

    • @Hiandbye95
      @Hiandbye95 หลายเดือนก่อน +2

      ​@@admthrawnuru Why does it have to be so cold? Is it because at higher temperatures the atoms move around too much?

    • @retu3510
      @retu3510 หลายเดือนก่อน

      I know a reasearch group who just uses a platinum wire which they cut off at an angle with scissors and then pulse current through a few times till they have a one atom tip. Works quite well for their use case and was quick

    • @thea78999
      @thea78999 หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@Hiandbye95 (I can only tell from own experience.) With graphene we didn't need a vacuum or cryogenic temperatures. Essentially the tip of the cantilever was send rapidly across a small area of the graphene. This does produce pictures of the graphene structure, but they aren't the smoothest. Essentially the scan lines would be slightly off the nexts position. I assume it's possible to do much better under cryogenic temperatures in a vacuum and it may be needed for materials other than graphene (seems pretty plausible to me).

  • @gruffdavies
    @gruffdavies หลายเดือนก่อน +16

    Brilliant video. My favourite of yours so far (as a fellow PhD physicist, I really appreciate how much work you've put into researching this and loving the cheeky humour too. This new explanation of a classic phenomenon that we thought we understood reminded me of a fairly recent result showing that static electricity (e.g. amber and fur) isn't due to electrons as we thought, but molecular ions. Apparently, a chemist proved the electron model was energetically impossible. A bit embarrassing for us physicists, but I bet he was a physical chemist, so we can take the win anyway
    😂). Keep up the great work, Dr. Ben!

  • @AllHailZeppelin
    @AllHailZeppelin 28 วันที่ผ่านมา +42

    Veritasium’s been real quiet since this vid dropped

  • @barberb
    @barberb หลายเดือนก่อน +311

    > Physics grads: why is ice slippery > CS grads: how can I make sand think

    • @RENO_K
      @RENO_K หลายเดือนก่อน +6

      😂😂

    • @RENO_K
      @RENO_K หลายเดือนก่อน +37

      How do i make sand do my earthly bidding

    • @cosmicraysshotsintothelight
      @cosmicraysshotsintothelight หลายเดือนก่อน +4

      OK... now try that with the grains of dust in a bag of flour.

    • @colbyboucher6391
      @colbyboucher6391 หลายเดือนก่อน +7

      Or crabs. They started to make crabs think, once, that was fun. Crabs computer.

    • @cosmicraysshotsintothelight
      @cosmicraysshotsintothelight หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@colbyboucher6391 Coconut crabs! New drone 'firmware'.

  • @robmorgan1214
    @robmorgan1214 หลายเดือนก่อน +18

    Metals will also fuse if they have a surface of sufficient flatness and they do not have an oxide layer. Infact, most metallic machine parts that require fasteners like screws or bolts will use different metals to prevent a weld forming when the faster is tightened.

  • @holderheck
    @holderheck หลายเดือนก่อน +25

    From what i have personally noticed below -34C i can't find anymore slippery ice.

    • @blucat4
      @blucat4 หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      Very cool experiment, cheers. 🙂

    • @vez3834
      @vez3834 29 วันที่ผ่านมา

      That could be due to how your shoe behaves at that temp. There are probably other factors you'd need to keep in mind.

    • @holderheck
      @holderheck 29 วันที่ผ่านมา +6

      @@vez3834 Not just on my shoe, it's hard to explain but by touch with any object, metal flesh, rubber, fur doesn't matter you can feel in how it slips one feels like cheap chalk on a chalk board and when it's warmer it slides.

    • @DumbAsh00
      @DumbAsh00 26 วันที่ผ่านมา +1

      What I personally noticed is below -34C I can't find anymore water

  • @AlbertScoot
    @AlbertScoot หลายเดือนก่อน +7

    3:17 Thank you for voicing something everyone who's studied engineering has felt.

  • @JohnDlugosz
    @JohnDlugosz หลายเดือนก่อน +22

    Two ice cubes fresh from the kitchen at -8 degrees C act more like proper solids and don't stick together when pressed. Interestingly, they also _sound_ different when knocking against each other.
    However, they are still slippery, and if I drop one it will shoot off along the floor. Also note that in winter sports, a colder ice rink is "faster" for skating.

    • @NotSomeJustinWithoutAMoustache
      @NotSomeJustinWithoutAMoustache หลายเดือนก่อน +7

      He mentions and explains this in the video.

    • @blucat4
      @blucat4 หลายเดือนก่อน +3

      The colder they are, the more like proper solids they act.

    • @JohnDlugosz
      @JohnDlugosz หลายเดือนก่อน +3

      I notice in the out-takes that you had trouble getting it to stick together, too. I'll bet they were fresh from the freezer; too cold for that trick.
      It works when the ice is at equilibrium, actually melting to maintain the freezing-point temperature of the rest of it.

    • @xqr2911
      @xqr2911 หลายเดือนก่อน +2

      You all should google "gauge block wringing" to see that "proper solids" stick to each other easily but must be very very very flat.

    • @isaac6077
      @isaac6077 26 วันที่ผ่านมา

      @@xqr2911waters just taking up the air space and causing suction cupping

  • @lodewijk.
    @lodewijk. หลายเดือนก่อน +12

    Wow, it's not often that I get to see such a big common mystery definitively solved! Major kudos to the researchers and to you for breaking it down so clearly

  • @Dumb-Comment
    @Dumb-Comment หลายเดือนก่อน +13

    0:14 ok, then explain why my cat is glued to my legs

    • @danielthecake8617
      @danielthecake8617 27 วันที่ผ่านมา

      uhhh... electrical attraction?

  • @dallassukerkin6878
    @dallassukerkin6878 หลายเดือนก่อน +9

    One of those topics that turned out to be much more interesting than you would imagine! Learning that certain ice-based sports have temperature preferences was a real "Really?" moment :)

  • @firestarter5239
    @firestarter5239 หลายเดือนก่อน +90

    icy what you mean

    • @PodaKalidoka
      @PodaKalidoka หลายเดือนก่อน +7

      IC it 2

    • @poldidak
      @poldidak หลายเดือนก่อน +3

      Icy what you both did, there!

    • @blucat4
      @blucat4 หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      @@poldidak They're pretty cool!

    • @rogerneedham8775
      @rogerneedham8775 หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      You can c yourself out

    • @PodaKalidoka
      @PodaKalidoka หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@rogerneedham8775 😂

  • @TehPwnerer
    @TehPwnerer หลายเดือนก่อน +12

    Skate blades are not in the shape of a point like a typical knife but are in a concave curved C. This way each side has its own edge to grip into the ice better for turns etc.

    • @TjarkVerhoeven
      @TjarkVerhoeven หลายเดือนก่อน +2

      Icehockey and figureskating blades are. Speedskating blades are flat with 2 90 degree angles.

  • @illyon1092
    @illyon1092 29 วันที่ผ่านมา +1

    this was a great video, excellently explaining this newfound knowledge in a great format without wasting time. I also appreciate the subtle, unobtrusive bits of dry humour throughout.

  • @aleclanter2177
    @aleclanter2177 20 วันที่ผ่านมา +1

    I don't know why YT finally got around to suggesting your channel, but for once the algorithm was SPOT ON! Loved this video, and with your sense of humor I'm convinced that we are somehow related. XD
    Subscribed. Keep up the great work!

  • @MrTheoJ
    @MrTheoJ หลายเดือนก่อน +35

    It is my understanding that wooden-shoes ( yes I'm Dutch ) are anti-slippery, the question ( if true ) is then why?

    • @peetsnort
      @peetsnort หลายเดือนก่อน +7

      The fridge workers in old capetown used clogs

    • @aukir
      @aukir หลายเดือนก่อน +66

      Wood fibers absorb the water and freeze, kinda micro gluing you to the floor. It's really an amazing process, and not only that, it's completely made up.

    • @rafox66
      @rafox66 หลายเดือนก่อน +2

      Do you walk on clogs regularly? Because I can tell you that's not the case.

    • @cosmicraysshotsintothelight
      @cosmicraysshotsintothelight หลายเดือนก่อน +6

      @@aukir Stand in one place on a cold enough day on ice and with cold enough clogs and they will "seize in place". Maybe some of the superglue you were playing with got onto your eyelids. It is really an amazing process.

    • @peisrijn
      @peisrijn หลายเดือนก่อน +2

      I never walked on ice with them, but almost always experience snow sticking to their soles an building into a sort of snowball unterneath that walk very awkward, until it breaks of after getting 5-10 cm thick. This is at temperatures when the snow is sticky as you experience in the Netherlands.

  • @Arahknid
    @Arahknid หลายเดือนก่อน +184

    Okay, now, why is water sticky?

    • @AUTISM.GAMING
      @AUTISM.GAMING หลายเดือนก่อน +99

      It causes bonds on almost every object, basically, it is literally trying to be part of you, this is because the positive and negative charge on the H2O molecules.

    • @4D2M0T
      @4D2M0T หลายเดือนก่อน +11

      Maybe surface tensions

    • @pourplecat
      @pourplecat หลายเดือนก่อน +9

      it simply just sticks to things

    • @Victorsandergamer
      @Victorsandergamer หลายเดือนก่อน +10

      ​@@pourplecatlmao how is that a sufficient or even satisfactory answer in the comment section of a science channel? what's your reasoning... the H20 molecules have the same properties as glue? (which involves water EVAPORATING, mind you) or the individual atoms grabs onto things with tiny little electron arms?

    • @goofycat676
      @goofycat676 หลายเดือนก่อน +47

      @@Victorsandergamerbro does not understand a joke

  • @mikelabor7688
    @mikelabor7688 20 วันที่ผ่านมา +1

    An excellent vid. I recall a winter storm years ago. A freezing rain left a layer on asphalt that was "super slippery. Walking across one road I slipped at least four times.

  • @shorgravan
    @shorgravan 29 วันที่ผ่านมา +1

    Real interesting stuff! Double points as this made me unlearn something I thought I knew. And it as this generates a bunch of follow--up questions too!
    Can't access the paper right now but I'll definitely give it a read at some point.

  • @SeekingTheLoveThatGodMeans7648
    @SeekingTheLoveThatGodMeans7648 หลายเดือนก่อน +8

    The blocks of ice fuse when pressed together in air that is above their melting point, because their surface first melts then resolidifies. Try doing that in air below the melting point and at the least enough pressure would be needed to correspond to a pressure weld.

    • @xqr2911
      @xqr2911 หลายเดือนก่อน +3

      You can definitely do that without melting or much pressure with other solids - like metal in room temperature. The surface just needs to be extremely flat - look for "gauge block wringing".

  • @romainvincent7346
    @romainvincent7346 หลายเดือนก่อน +13

    Asking such questions is a slippery slope

  • @glennback3105
    @glennback3105 หลายเดือนก่อน +1

    Dude you blow my mind every time. How much research u do is great and the vids too

  • @PlayNowWorkLater
    @PlayNowWorkLater หลายเดือนก่อน

    Mind blown! This was one of the most articulate and concise science education videos ever posted on TH-cam. Thank you for putting this video together.

  • @Tferdz
    @Tferdz หลายเดือนก่อน +39

    AFM probes are rarely metal, usually made of silicon or silicon nitride. Metal probes have lower resolution and higher wear, so they're often metal-coated instead. 7:30

    • @unclejimmy7
      @unclejimmy7 หลายเดือนก่อน +2

      Is silicon not metal?

    • @genericalias5756
      @genericalias5756 หลายเดือนก่อน

      ​@@unclejimmy7metalloid no?

    • @ratdoto2148
      @ratdoto2148 หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      @@unclejimmy7 It's a metalloid.

    • @cosmicraysshotsintothelight
      @cosmicraysshotsintothelight หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@ratdoto2148 They should use some of the crystal they grew to make the new kilogram standard. Now that is some clean crystal (probe) candidate material. I think the tips are grown not machined though, right? So... oh well.

    • @ratdoto2148
      @ratdoto2148 หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@cosmicraysshotsintothelight What? The Kilogram is now based on a fundamental value, it never changes. Why would you change it back to some physical nonsense?

  • @TerryBollinger
    @TerryBollinger หลายเดือนก่อน +7

    What a fantastic science video! For the first time in my life, I feel like I’ve heard a genuinely plausible explanation for why ice is slippery!
    Thank you!

  • @shmayazuggot8558
    @shmayazuggot8558 29 วันที่ผ่านมา

    Brilliantly presented, although a complex journey you captained us through the waters with clarity. Earned a new subscriber here!

  • @duhby
    @duhby 26 วันที่ผ่านมา

    Thanks for actually adding to the paper/article the video is about unlike most similar channels.

  • @Amadioh
    @Amadioh หลายเดือนก่อน +38

    took us long enough

    • @hannosolo
      @hannosolo หลายเดือนก่อน

      Us?

    • @cuboembaralhado8294
      @cuboembaralhado8294 หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      ​@hannosolo humanity

    • @hannosolo
      @hannosolo หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@cuboembaralhado8294Birging.

    • @vez3834
      @vez3834 29 วันที่ผ่านมา

      ​@@hannosolo what are you on about?

  • @kevinconnolly3600
    @kevinconnolly3600 หลายเดือนก่อน +7

    I spent some days this January in Rovaniemi where the temperature was between -15C and -30C but the ice was not slippery. It was quite safe to walk around with no risk of sliding. I wonder if that was because of a rough layer of frost or snow covering the ice?

    • @peetsnort
      @peetsnort หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      A couple of years ago I drove from Hereford to Worcester in minus 17 the road was very grippy

    • @cosmicraysshotsintothelight
      @cosmicraysshotsintothelight หลายเดือนก่อน

      I topped Snowshoe Mt in PA USA one year on the expressway in 8 inches of snow. On the Eastern side of the incline to the peak, myself and truckers, etc. were passing cars in the fast lane doing the full (fool) speed limit in slushy snow at the road surface level. As I topped the hill (these ain't mountains)the Western side was wind blown powder ice as they had plowed away the snow before, and my car did three huge donuts in the middle of the three lane highway and as it did I saw all the cars backing off like some time slowed cartoon, and then my little Chevette went off the side of the highway and the shape of the ditch flipped the car once in the air and it landed in the wheels facing the road perpendicular to it no glass broken, no tires popped, and still running engine. I turned it off. Good thing because the exhaust pipe had broken free from the last mount and got bent and shoved into my gas tank. All the flip did was rack my hatchback open and threw my drafting board and some of my tools out into the 8 inches of snow, which is when I noticed the gas gurgling out. Glad I turned it off. Ice is very slippery and I doubt seriously that there was any liquid form water involved on that western side. The roadway was cold(er), and they plow so no salt or they missed this patch. Anyway, that is but one of my experiences with ice. They also took out several teeth on another occasion. How quaint.

    • @nomars4827
      @nomars4827 หลายเดือนก่อน

      ​​​@@peetsnort hm that's quiet explains how they confidently drive in Northern countries while when we have ice at close to zero temperatures it is tooo slipery.

  • @IroAppe
    @IroAppe 21 วันที่ผ่านมา

    2:44: That has to be the most clarifying picture of water freezing to ice that I've seen. It's so beautiful, you immediately see what happens and why.

  • @JessWLStuart
    @JessWLStuart หลายเดือนก่อน +1

    WOW! I've always wondered about this! Thanks for presenting it!

  • @Jack.Waters
    @Jack.Waters หลายเดือนก่อน +18

    Yes, Always fascinating that Water has no lubricity at all... Water instead of Oil in an Engine will lock it up Fast. And Ice is colder when in Water. Ice in itself is highly slick the more smooth it is. New Ice is very strong compared to being a week old on a Lake. 1" of new ice will generally hold a careful human: 3" of old ice. 10" of ice will hold an 8-ton truck. Drive too fast on ice and a Wave will occur. Fascinating stuff.

    • @renerpho
      @renerpho หลายเดือนก่อน +8

      It's such a weird substance.

    • @Jack.Waters
      @Jack.Waters หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      @@renerpho I think it is also the only thing that swells as it’s chilled.

    • @renerpho
      @renerpho หลายเดือนก่อน +7

      @@Jack.Waters One of very few that do that, yes. He mentions Bismuth, which also does it. All the other examples are synthetic, and don't occur in nature.

    • @Jack.Waters
      @Jack.Waters หลายเดือนก่อน +5

      @@renerpho thank you for that. You’ve cause me to research which feeds the mind well. Gallium also expands 3%. Fascinating that all 3 freeze at close-ish temps but they Boil at vast temps. Awesome.

  • @lagautmd
    @lagautmd หลายเดือนก่อน +6

    You didn't cover it, but this appears to explain why two pieces of ice join to make one piece when pressed against each other. Those molecules at the surface that are free to move now have 'buddies' on the other surface and they can arrange into a continuation of the hexagonal pattern, creating a single sold. I don't know if it has been verified, but it certainly seems reasonable based on this explanation for slipperiness.

    • @velisvideos6208
      @velisvideos6208 หลายเดือนก่อน

      If one were to make skates with blades from water ice, would they be slippy or sticky?

    • @lagautmd
      @lagautmd หลายเดือนก่อน

      Skates from ice? Sticky, of course.

  • @snowy3869.
    @snowy3869. 22 วันที่ผ่านมา +2

    3:14 "Thompson was one of the inspirations in the field of Thermodynamics, something I'll never personally forgive him for"
    Me too, me too...

  • @oceannuclear
    @oceannuclear หลายเดือนก่อน +2

    "Something I'll never personally forgive him for" SAME

  • @treeoflifeenterprises
    @treeoflifeenterprises หลายเดือนก่อน +4

    i'm so glad you've explained what I was never convinced of at school, about it being pressure melting the ice at the junction. It could never explain to me how you could have antarctic ice 1km thick wher if it was pressure due to weight, it would have to be liquid after a short depth. thankyou!

    • @dennis1954
      @dennis1954 หลายเดือนก่อน

      Water changes phase into ice at 32F and ice into water at 32F in a freshwater lake. The heat measured as BTU are the difference. Water is the densest at 39F at is at the bottom with 38F rising as well as 32F water rising and freezes at the surface. That’s why there is water under the ice. Never thought about it but the water must apply pressure to the bottom of the ice holding it up as it expands. Not sure of saltwater temperatures due to salt changing the melting (phase change) point.

    • @CrankyOtter
      @CrankyOtter หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@dennis1954Salt amounts vary melting/freezing temperatures of water but the reason for Fahrenheit’s zero point is that’s where salty sea ice freezes.
      There have been refinements to precision subsequently, but
      0°F = frozen ocean
      32°F = frozen fresh water
      ~100°F = body temperature

  • @Rick_Cavallaro
    @Rick_Cavallaro หลายเดือนก่อน +46

    Using "Under Pressure" at 2:20 was brilliant. But now I want to see you use "Ice Ice Baby" since it ripped off "Under Pressure".

    • @Sonny_McMacsson
      @Sonny_McMacsson หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      They're totally different!

    • @nonstop7243
      @nonstop7243 หลายเดือนก่อน +8

      He did use it, it's the first song played.

    • @Rick_Cavallaro
      @Rick_Cavallaro หลายเดือนก่อน

      @@Sonny_McMacsson here's what the elders of the interwebs have to say on the topic...
      Ice ice baby under pressure
      Sampling and Controversy
      “Ice Ice Baby” by Vanilla Ice is a song that has been shrouded in controversy since its release in 1990. The song’s bassline is heavily sampled from Queen and David Bowie’s 1981 hit “Under Pressure”. The controversy surrounding the song’s sampling and the lack of credit or royalties given to Queen and Bowie has been a topic of debate for decades.
      Queen’s Reaction
      According to Freddie Mercury’s assistant, Peter “Phoebe” Freestone, Freddie Mercury initially thought he was listening to “Under Pressure” when he first heard “Ice Ice Baby”. He seemed bemused more than angry, and later said “imitation is the sincerest form of flattery”. However, the members of Queen were not always kind when talking about “Ice Ice Baby”, with drummer Roger Taylor quipping “A white rapper from Florida… great” and guitarist Brian May admitting his view of the whole thing had been jaundiced because rap didn’t appeal to him.
      Impact on Vanilla Ice
      The controversy surrounding “Ice Ice Baby” had a significant impact on Vanilla Ice’s career. The song’s chart-topping era was short-lived, and he soon faced embarrassment and mockery for his handling of the situation. He was accused of ripping off Queen and Bowie without giving them proper credit or royalties, and the controversy surrounding the song has followed him for decades.
      Legacy
      Despite the controversy, “Ice Ice Baby” remains a iconic song of the 1990s and a staple of hip-hop culture. The song’s sampling of “Under Pressure” has been widely discussed and debated, with some arguing that it was a clever and innovative move, while others see it as a blatant rip-off. Regardless, the song’s impact on popular culture is undeniable, and it continues to be a topic of discussion and debate to this day.

    • @Rick_Cavallaro
      @Rick_Cavallaro หลายเดือนก่อน +2

      @@nonstop7243 I missed it. I am shamed and shall self-administer the appropriate punishment!

    • @oceannuclear
      @oceannuclear หลายเดือนก่อน +3

      @@Sonny_McMacsson I suppose "ripped off" was not the right term, but the bassline of Ice Ice Baby samples Under Pressure's.

  • @kcStranger
    @kcStranger 28 วันที่ผ่านมา

    So, I was actually in a graduate research group that studied the quasi-liquid layer using simulations. I think it's been general knowledge that it exists for quite a while, but the specific experiments that you showed here were new on me, and gave me a deeper appreciation for what's going on!
    I've been out of the science world for a while, and it's always fun to check back on the progress that's been made.

  • @StAngerNo1
    @StAngerNo1 21 วันที่ผ่านมา +1

    As a chemistry teacher I find it so fascinating that one of the simplest and most common compounds in the world is also one of the "weirdest" in its behaviours. But eventually it all comes down to the effect that water with its up to 4 hydrogen bounds (2 dative and 2 acceptive) has such strong interatomic forces for its small size that it behaves very different to basically all other compounds.

  • @user-js9tx6dz6y
    @user-js9tx6dz6y หลายเดือนก่อน +4

    What a fun video. Learning while watching people slipping on ice.

  • @chilael6892
    @chilael6892 หลายเดือนก่อน +6

    I'll never forgive you for not including that clip of the guy sliding in ice without falling for a solid 15 seconds lol

  • @mrvnoble
    @mrvnoble 5 วันที่ผ่านมา

    Wonderful video that respectfully challenged my existing conceptions and provided good evidence for an alternative!

  • @gunhasirac
    @gunhasirac 28 วันที่ผ่านมา

    I’m glad among all the educational videos that disappointed me, I clicked on this one and I’m satisfied. Thank you for your work.

  • @blazerdc25
    @blazerdc25 27 วันที่ผ่านมา +3

    Just an interesting fact, the blade of an ice skate isn't like a knife against an ice, more like a concave lens with the edges sharpened. Love the video!

  • @benmcreynolds8581
    @benmcreynolds8581 หลายเดือนก่อน +4

    I never stop being fascinated by Material science and all the unique ways people keep coming up with advancing our technology to study these material properties. It's really impressive how people have come up with the most ingenious ideas to build new devices to measure or visualize materials.. It almost feels like we discover a sorta cheat code to the world whenever certain discoveries get made..

  • @kipchickensout
    @kipchickensout 29 วันที่ผ่านมา

    The amount of chapter title and music matches you've done :D

  • @codiserville593
    @codiserville593 21 วันที่ผ่านมา

    that science went way deeper than I expected it to.
    And I never could initially make sense of the pressure, re-melting theory

  • @Matt-kl1pg
    @Matt-kl1pg หลายเดือนก่อน +7

    How do they make the AFM probe tip so thin?

    • @alquinn8576
      @alquinn8576 หลายเดือนก่อน +5

      not sure about AFM but I did use a scanning tunneling microscope in a physics lab and made the atomic-scale tip myself. how? by taking a metal wire and wire cutters and cutting the wire while putting it under tension. it was surprisingly easy to do (though some people were less good at it, and had to try a few times to get a good tip). I'm guessing the AFM used here was more precision than that, but the ductility of metal allows for easy creation of a sharp tip.

    • @SDelduwath
      @SDelduwath หลายเดือนก่อน +2

      Depends on the style of probe. Lithography for standard silicon ones and possibly combined with selective ion etching. Fancy geometry probes typically done in a FIB (painstaking and tedious). For high Q AFM probes I mostly used electrochemical etching though: fine wire(tungsten or gold) as anode with a platinum wire ring cathode in KOH solution and use a comparator circuit to shut off the current the moment the wire breaks which gets you into the single digit nm range.. which is small but doesn't quite hit clean lattice pics. For that you need a cold sample and an even sharper tip which typically is done by functionalizing the tip and putting a carbon monoxide molecule on the end to use as a probe tip.

  • @andyrbush
    @andyrbush หลายเดือนก่อน +6

    That was educational and hilarious at the same time. Absolutely brilliant.

  • @Tordvergar
    @Tordvergar หลายเดือนก่อน

    Absolutely marvelous video. A problem that often comes up in the sciences is that once we have a model that seems to explain a phenomenon, the model becomes the reality, in the sense that it outweighs taking a fresh look at the actual phenomenon. For example, when I studied material science, electrical and thermal conductivity in metals was explained by electron mobility. But that didn't explain how electrical and thermal conductivity vary, metal to metal, in an uneven manner. And then you find that diamond conducts heat several times better than silver does, while diamond is the best electrical insulator and silver is the best electrical conductor. This explanation of why and how ice is slippery is so beautifully subtle!

  • @stevenape377
    @stevenape377 29 วันที่ผ่านมา

    Very well done! I'd heard the "melting surface layer" explanation but was aware that it had flaws. So it's interesting to hear more about what's going on :)

  • @jmi967
    @jmi967 หลายเดือนก่อน +4

    Why doesn't an AFM probe tip dull immediately on use?

    • @Yezpahr
      @Yezpahr หลายเดือนก่อน +8

      Because "touch" and "feel" are an oxymoron in the explanation. You will never touch atoms. Not even with other atoms.
      You press within its electron shell and get bounced back before the electrons touch anything. This force is so tiny yet so fast that nothing truly touches each other. (well, unless you overcome the force of that electron shell which basically only happens inside a star or neutron star and perhaps in cyclotrons)

    • @aspuzling
      @aspuzling หลายเดือนก่อน +6

      An AFM probe doesn't really "touch" the atoms that it's sampling, it rests a fixed distance away from the surface and senses the change in electromagnetic force on the tip caused by the electron cloud surrounding the atom. When it detects close separation, a feedback mechanism automatically moves the tip away from the sample and so the separation is restored to the fixed amount. This way you can move over surfaces that are not perfectly atomically flat without damaging the tip.

    • @BeaglzRok1
      @BeaglzRok1 หลายเดือนก่อน +1

      @@Yezpahr The thing about this fact that I find funny is that it means a person's sense of touch is created by cells registering ratios of resistance and energy from nearby magnetic fields rather than any actual contact between matter. 50-grit sandpaper has very prominent peaks of magnetism with rigid support behind it (solid) surrounded by a much larger amount of magnetism with no support (fluid) that give the impression of something jagged.
      It also means you've never physically contacted anything with your atoms, even your own body's atoms. Compounds might be tugged out of place by particularly resilient structures, but it's not like they were attached by anything more than chemical bonds.

    • @jmi967
      @jmi967 28 วันที่ผ่านมา

      @@aspuzling I didn't realize that it was actively moved, which makes way more sense. All I could think of is how a diamond knife works but how easy it is to destroy the edge if you even slightly move it to one side.

    • @jmi967
      @jmi967 28 วันที่ผ่านมา

      @@Yezpahr Bet you feel special knowing that. In reality, touch applies to electromagnetic field repulsion, and therefore applies here. Your comment would be like me taking a hammer to your car and saying “well technically I didn't touch it”.

  • @Nibor999
    @Nibor999 หลายเดือนก่อน +5

    Water: Is there anything it can't do?? A fascinating video. Thanks so much.

  • @hootiebubbabuddhabelly
    @hootiebubbabuddhabelly หลายเดือนก่อน

    These "non-questions" are the questions that spark the explorations that reveal the discoveries that change the world! VERY interesting! Thank you for sharing!

  • @evanricard6468
    @evanricard6468 18 วันที่ผ่านมา

    Your explanations and graphics are fantastic, this is a wonderful video

  • @AndrewJohnson-oy8oj
    @AndrewJohnson-oy8oj หลายเดือนก่อน +3

    What an amazing time to be alive. We've both created macroscopic devices that can interact on a microscopic scale while also affecting the planet on such a massive scale as to destroy ourselves.

  • @chaosschnitzl7422
    @chaosschnitzl7422 18 วันที่ผ่านมา +4

    You say pounds per squareinch, but than say Fahrenheit for americans??

  • @johncage5368
    @johncage5368 หลายเดือนก่อน +1

    I like explanations that dig deep enough to actually explain something on a molecular level. Nice!

  • @scigy
    @scigy 28 วันที่ผ่านมา

    Wonderful video! It's hard to imagine the macroscopic effect of slipperiness supported by a few loose water molecules though. It would be interesting to see this hypothesis develop and be applied to other interfaces.

  • @diskdrive123
    @diskdrive123 หลายเดือนก่อน +4

    That was a complicated way of saying that ice's surface acts like a liquid, but only when in friction.... 🙄

    • @LuggageStardate
      @LuggageStardate หลายเดือนก่อน

      It actually doesnt. They add weights to vehicles when they drive on ice.

    • @diskdrive123
      @diskdrive123 หลายเดือนก่อน

      ​@@LuggageStardate I don't even know what that is suppose to mean in this context?

  • @Gunbudder
    @Gunbudder หลายเดือนก่อน +7

    4:04 NO! This is NOT the shape of ice skate's blade! its a very specific cupped shape with two edges on the sides and its actually raised in the center of the blade. this forms a channel of water created by the pressure. the single pointed blade in this video's graphic doesn't work as well

    • @maxfinnian
      @maxfinnian หลายเดือนก่อน

      This would be functionally identical though? The air in the n shape is not trapped, so effectively it is two V shapes next to each other. Functionally it would be equivalent to a V with surface area 0.5A when the skate is angled and A when the skate is flat. The two Vs would help more with balance but do little else to the physics (anyways, this would lower the calculated pressure reducing the effect of pressure melting further than originally expected).

  • @oncrei
    @oncrei 6 วันที่ผ่านมา

    Beautiful Science Communication.
    Great job!

  • @mompfreed.
    @mompfreed. 10 วันที่ผ่านมา

    The best videos are definitely the ones you randomly find at 3 AM. Here Sir, sincerely take my Follow for your channel!

  • @isodoublet
    @isodoublet หลายเดือนก่อน +7

    Nope not buying it. If this is supposed to be "the" explanation for ice slipperiness, there better be some direct evidence that this is actually what happens _when things slide on ice._ A static AFM image taken in a regime where ice isn't even supposed to be slippery to begin with doesn't quite cut it. Furthermore, if this is the explanation, why would two ice blocks fuse when touched? It'd be very unlikely that the H and C surfaces would align perfectly on two random ice blocks, so you'd still expect them to slip. Also, when you lightly touch an ice block, it sure feels more frictiony than when you actually try to slide it with force, so there's definitely a pressure-dependent effect that this explanation is missing.

  • @gregculverwell
    @gregculverwell หลายเดือนก่อน

    Thanks for the education.
    I have always been just slightly sceptical of the 'melting under pressure' explanation.

  • @whitestarlinegoodnight
    @whitestarlinegoodnight หลายเดือนก่อน +1

    "Thomson was one of the inspirations of the field of thermodynamics, something I'll personally never forgive him for."
    As an engineering student... yeah.

  • @Lisorael
    @Lisorael หลายเดือนก่อน

    I am incredibly relieved by this video. I intuited this answer, and thought you were going to show how I was wrong, but apparently I was incredibly close.

  • @hancocki
    @hancocki หลายเดือนก่อน +1

    I love how you sampled the classic "Under Pressure" riff! 😊

  • @TooTallForPony
    @TooTallForPony หลายเดือนก่อน

    12:32 Thank you for introducing the term "slippy" to our vocabulary! I'm a huge fan of that particular change to our language.

  • @lastyhopper2792
    @lastyhopper2792 8 วันที่ผ่านมา

    Successfully analyzing stuffs so small it can't even be seen must be one of humanity's greatest achievements.

  • @davilated
    @davilated หลายเดือนก่อน

    Very interesting video, and great explanation; thanks Ben!

  • @NightWriting
    @NightWriting หลายเดือนก่อน

    Only a few weeks ago, i saw this one on a list of 'questions science still hasn't answered'.
    My interest peaked immediately!

  • @stephenkolostyak4087
    @stephenkolostyak4087 หลายเดือนก่อน

    You proved it in the title, it's suggested in the description.
    ...this raises my hackles due to a lack of friction.

  • @kevinb8204
    @kevinb8204 หลายเดือนก่อน

    Excellent video once again Dr. Miles. Keep 'em coming.

  • @coorooegan4508
    @coorooegan4508 หลายเดือนก่อน

    I wrote a pop-sci book years ago where for maybe a page, I talked about slippery ice and how it had been puzzling people for, well, quite some time. I find it particularly awesome that they actually figured it out (we're so living in the future :)

  • @black350Z
    @black350Z หลายเดือนก่อน

    Ever since high school chemistry, I've been fascinated with the behavior of water. It's so wild how it's so different than most other materials. Great video!

  • @cerdi_99
    @cerdi_99 หลายเดือนก่อน

    5:40 great music choice for the transition. I see what u did there ^^

  • @bhakti235
    @bhakti235 หลายเดือนก่อน

    the way you seamlessly used ice ice baby and under pressure in meaningful ways was masterful

  • @thematturlookingfor
    @thematturlookingfor 7 วันที่ผ่านมา

    I love how cocky I was for like the first 8 minutes of this video as if the guy who made a thirteen minute video about it wasn’t about to teach me something. Great content man🤘🏻😂

  • @TheOfficialOriginalChad
    @TheOfficialOriginalChad 25 วันที่ผ่านมา

    Great touch with the music in the intro

  • @Cajundaddydave
    @Cajundaddydave หลายเดือนก่อน

    Awesome! We have observed this pre-melt layer in black ice which is typically at the ideal temperature for friction to vanish. A few degrees warmer or colder and friction is restored. Adding a layer of sand to the steps or driveway on the night before an ice storm gives our boots something to hang on to when the pre-melt layer is most treacherous.

  • @z-beeblebrox
    @z-beeblebrox หลายเดือนก่อน +2

    I’m really glad I learned about this because the “pressure causes a thin film of water to form” always seemed like such a letdown.

  • @plantcraftie4141
    @plantcraftie4141 27 วันที่ผ่านมา

    This is so interesting and well explained. Can't wait to share this with someone without me being asked